An overview of the attachment theory in psychology

Attachment Theory (Bowlby)

Compared to behaviorist and biological perspectives, ethological theory provides the most accurate and effective explanation of the development of attachment.

The following diagram shows the sequence of events in the attachment avoidance strategy. The diagram below shows the sequence of events in the security-based strategy. Michael Rutter argued that if a child fails to develop an emotional bondthis is privationwhereas deprivation refers to the loss of or damage to an attachment.

Rutter points out that several indicators of attachment such as protest or distress when attached person leaves have been shown for a variety of attachment figures — fathers, siblings, peers and even inanimate objects.

In order to confirm that the 7 subgroups indeed exist, it would have been helpful if a second group of participants, possibly larger in size, had yielded the same results.

The attachment rebuffs the request for greater closeness. Even when the bale-wire mother was the only one providing food, the infant monkeys became more attached to the terry cloth mother and used her as a secure base to explore their environments.

He also found evidence of anti-social behavior, affectionless psychopathy, and disorders of language, intellectual development and physical growth. The development of mother-infant and father-infant attachments in the second year of life.

Mental Health and Infant Development, 1, These are two criteria that must be met if attachment theory is to be considered a great idea. Attachment classification in children: If the behaviour of the infant does not appear to the observer to be coordinated in a smooth way across episodes to achieve either proximity or some relative proximity with the caregiver, then it is considered 'disorganized' as it indicates a disruption or flooding of the attachment system e.

Although ethology emphasizes the genetic and biological roots of development, learning is also considered important because it lends flexibility and adaptiveness to behavior. This theory also suggests that there is a critical period for developing an attachment about 0 -5 years.

More positive thoughts can encourage more creative responses to difficult problems or distressing situations. This supports the evolutionary theory of attachment, in that it is the sensitive response and security of the caregiver that is important as opposed to the provision of food.

These ideas de-emphasized domain general theories and emphasized domain specificity or modularity of mind. Second of all, there was substantial opportunity for the data to be inaccurate, mainly because the observers who rated the children's behavior in the home were often inexperienced raters who were asked to make subjective evaluations of both the infant's and mother's behavior.

Temperamental contributions to social behavior. According to the theory of operant conditioning, which emphasizes reciprocal responsiveness between the caregiver and baby, babies are reinforced to smile and look at their mothers, because in return they receive social interaction.

The evolutionary theory of attachment e. They tend to suppress their feelings, dealing with conflict by distancing themselves from partners of whom they often have a poor opinion.

Theoretical Evaluation This caregiver sensitivity theory is supported by research from, Wolff and Van Ijzendoorn who conducted a Meta-analysis a review of research into attachment types. They were also unable to communicate or socialize with other monkeys.

Specifically, it shaped his belief about the link between early infant separations with the mother and later maladjustment, and led Bowlby to formulate his attachment theory.

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The second question is whether the phenomena explained by creators and proponents of ethological attachment theory could have been explained differently, using other psychological mechanisms. Ainsworth and colleagues sometimes observed "tense movements such as hunching the shoulders, putting the hands behind the neck and tensely cocking the head, and so on.

Attachment Theory. Attachment theory is a concept in developmental psychology that concerns the importance of "attachment" in regards to personal development. Overall, the findings support a psychodynamic approach to personality. Attachment-related representations are unconsciously activated by threats, and this activation affects the cognitive processing of attachment-related material.

Continuing Education for Mental Health Professionals

TPSYCH Introduction to Psychology (5) I&S Surveys major areas of psychological science, including human social behavior, personality, psychological disorders and treatment, learning, memory, human development, biological influences, and research methods. Related. The Theory of Cognitive Development, is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence first developed by Jean is primarily known as a developmental stage theory, but in fact, it deals with the nature of knowledge itself and how humans come gradually to acquire it, construct it, and use cwiextraction.comer; Piaget claims the idea that cognitive development is.

Attachment theory in psychology originates with the seminal work of John Bowlby (). In the ’s John Bowlby worked as a psychiatrist in a Child Guidance Clinic in London, where he treated many emotionally disturbed children. Attachment and Bonding Child Abuse and Domestic Violence Education and Children's Intellectual Development.

Attachment and Bonding Also see subsection on Mother's Rights, Pregnancy and Child Custody in FAMILY LAW. Attachment as a Context for Development: Challenges and Issues by Nicola Atwool SCHOLAR; Attachment Research Bibliography by liz CITATIONS TO RESEARCH.

An overview of the attachment theory in psychology
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